by I.Ya. Grichanov

Igor Grichanov, All-Russian Institute of Plant Protection, Podbelskogo 3, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Russia.E-mail:
Last updated: 6 May 2003 

Genus Rhaphium Meigen
See pictures here
Males only; females are usually indeterminable without males in the same series.
1. Hind coxa without strong external seta, with hairs only; postpedicel usually short; fore femur often with long posteroventral hairs ... 2
Hind coxa with strong external seta; postpedicel usually long and narrow; fore femur usually without long posterior hairs ... 21
2. Antennal stylus with apical flag; postpedicel 4.5-5 times longer than high at base; stylus half as long as postpedicel; femora mostly black; cercus short, foliaceous; surstylus short and thick, biapicate; 3.2-4.1. Fig. 156 ... discigerum Stenhammar
Stylus simple ... 3

3. Face black, sometimes seems to be whitish or greyish from lateral view ... 4

Face silvery white ... 9

4. Cercus bifurcated ... 5

Cercus simple, long and narrow ... 8

5. Mid coxa without ventral spine, with several black setae only; femora black; surstylus acicular; 3.5-4.5. Fig. 168 ... nasutum (Falln)

Mid coxa with ventral setae forming spine ... 6

6. Fore basitarsus longer than rest tarsomeres combined, with several long setae at apex; legs mostly black; surstylus narrow, pointed at apex; 4.5-6.0. Fig. 177... commune (Meigen)

Fore basitarsus shorter than rest tarsomeres combined ... 7

7. Fore and mid tibia dark; fore basitarsus straight, without strong setae; fore femur with black hairs; surstylus long and narrow, with short basodorsal projection; 4.5-5.6. Fig. 162... glaciale (Ringdahl)

Fore and mid tibia yellow; fore basitarsus curved, with row of strong setae; fore femur with row of very strong black setae; cercus short and broad; surstylus narrow, pointed at apex; 4.5-4.9.Fig. 170 ... pectinatum (Loew)

8. Hind tibia strongly thickened at apex, whitish-yellow in basal half, black in distal half; fore tarsus simple; surstylus broad, triangular; 3.7-4.3. Fig. 160 ... fascipes (Meigen)

Hind tibia not thickened or slightly thickened; 2nd segment of fore tarsus flattened at base, slightly thickened at apex; surstylus bladelike, long, with strong seta at apex; 4.7-5.3. Fig. 167 ... nigribarbatum (Becker)

9. 5th segment of mid tarsus strongly widened ... 10

5th segment of mid tarsus weakly widened or simple ... 11

10. 4th segment of mid tarsus not widened; 5th segment of same tarsus widened and flattened; cercus triangular, moderately long; surstylus baculiform, curved; 4.4-5.1. Fig. 154 ... confine Zetterstedt

4th and 5th segments of mid tarsus widened; cercus bifurcated at middle; surstylus narrow; 4.4-5.2. Fig. 153 ... crassipes (Meigen)

11. Mid coxa with ventral setae forming spine ... 12

Mid coxa without spine ... 17

12. Mid coxa with ventral spine of light setae; fore basitarsus widened; mid femur yellow; cercus foliaceous, with long hairs; surstylus baculiform; 4.8-5.7. Fig. 152 ... basale Loew

Mid coxa with ventral spine of dark setae ... 13

13. Fore basitarsus simple, usually slightly longer than 2nd tarsomere ... 14

Fore basitarsus thickened, usually 1.5 times longer than 2nd tarsomere ... 15

14. Postpedicel 3.5 times longer than high at base and longer than stylus; cercus elongate-triangular, reddish-yellow; surstylus spoon-like at apex, with apical setae; 3.1-4.4. Fig. 164 ... laticorne (Falln)

Postpedicel no more than 3 times longer than high at base, distinctly shorter than stylus; cercus bifurcated; surstylus narrow, slightly widened in distal half; 3-3.4. Fig. 173 ... rivale (Loew)

15. Cercus bifurcated; surstylus acicular; femora yellow; 4.3-4.7. Fig. 161 ... holmgreni (Mik)

Cercus simple ... 16

16. Femora mostly black; stylus slightly thickened at apex; cercus long and narrow, bandlike, with apical seta; surstylus pointed at apex; 4.6-5.4. Fig. 169 ... patulum (Raddatz)

Femora reddish-yellow; cercus long, gradually narrowing apicad; surstylus moderately long, baculiform; 5.6-6.9. Fig. 157 ... elegantulum (Meigen)

17. Fore femur with ventral row of strong setae, half as long as diameter of femur; fore basitarsus with short erect hairs; cercus short, triangular, with broad straight distal margin; surstylus lanceolate; 3.5-4.8. Fig. 155 ... discolor Zetterstedt

Fore femur with ventral hairs only, without strong setae ... 18

18. Cercus trilobate; surstylus narrowing at middle, with basodorsal projection; femora mostly dark; 4.4-5.0. Fig. 175... tridactylum (Frey)

Cercus simple ... 19

19. Cercus longer than epandrium; femora mostly dark; fore basitarsus thickened at apex; hind basitarsus with short dorsal spine; 4.5-5.5 ... gravipes Haliday

Cercus shorter than epandrium ... 20

20. Cercus broad, spearlike; surstylus baculiform; femora mostly yellow; 4.3-5.5. Fig. 172 ... riparium (Meigen)

Cercus narrower than surstylus, with bunch of long setae at apex; surstylus curved, with setae at apex; femora mostly black; 4.1-5.4. Fig. 171 ... penicillatum Loew

21. Scape higher than postpedicel; postpedicel long, thin, triquetrous; cercus long and broad; surstylus long and narrow, simple; 4.8-5.3. Fig. 165 ... longicorne (Falln)

Postpedicel higher than scape, flattened laterally ... 22

22. Fore basitarsus with ventral comb of strong setae, half as long as diameter of tarsomere; cercus long and narrow, broad at base; surstylus short; 3.8-4.8. Fig. 178 ... micans (Meigen)

Fore basitarsus without comb of strong setae ... 23

23. Frons densely white or grey pollinose ... 24

Frons metallic, without pollen ... 27

24. Postpedicel 2 times longer than high at base; cercus simple; surstylus widening distad, with distal emargination; 2.8. Fig. 176 ... viklundi Grichanov

Postpedicel 5-7 times longer than high; cercus bilobate; surstylus without distal emargination ... 25

25. Four pairs of dorsocentral setae; femora partly dark; postpedicel 6 times longer than high; cercus with short and broad outer branch; surstylus securiform; 2.3-2.4. Fig. 149 ... albomaculatum Becker

Five pairs of dorsocentral setae; femora yellow ... 26

26. Postpedicel 5 times longer than high; cercus with narrow branches; surstylus widened at middle; 2.4-2.7. Fig. 158 ... fissum Loew

Postpedicel 6-7 times longer than high; cercus with broad branches; surstylus with small inner projection; 2.0-2.3. Fig. 148 ... albifrons Zetterstedt

27. Abdomen yellow laterally at base; cercus short, triangular; 2.0-2.5. Fig. 159 ... fasciatum (Meigen)

Abdomen entirely dark, usually metallic green ... 28

28. Hind coxa with light external seta ... fissum Loew

Hind coxa with dark external seta ... 29

29. Cercus elongate-triangular, with 1 long seta at apex; 2.5-3.3. Fig. 166 ... monotrichum Loew

Cercus without long seta at apex ... 30

30. Surstylus with dense bunch of long setae at apex ... 31

Surstylus without bunch of long setae at apex ... 32

31. Cercus long, bandlike; 2.4-3.1. Fig. 151 ... appendiculatum Zetterstedt

Cercus short, irregularly triangular, widened at middle; 2.8-3.3... caliginosum Meigen

32. Postpedicel nearly 5 times longer than high; cercus narrow; surstylus broad, with distal comb of setae; 2.6. Fig. 174 ... umbripenne (Frey)

Postpedicel approximately 4 times longer than high ... 33

33. Stylus 1/3 length of postpedicel; cercus elongate-triangular, longer than surstylus, with long sparse hairs; 3.3-3.5. Fig. 150... auctum Loew

Stylus 2/3 length of postpedicel; cercus short, nearly equal in length to surstylus, with short dense hairs; 2.8-3.3. Fig. 163 ... lanceolatum Loew

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