Grichanov, I.Ya. 
           All-Russian Institute of Plant Protection, VIZR
                 St.Petersburg-Pushkin 189620 Russia
Based on the data on phenology  of  Archips  rosana  L.   known  from
literature, field  studies were conducted during the definite periods
of the pest development in the Azov district of the Rostov area.  The
influence of   the temperature factor on the embryonic development of
A.rosana was determined by the technigue of the Holland workers Minks
and De Jong (1975)  who found a strong linear correlation between the
mean daily   temperature  and  the  proportion  of  eggs  hatched  in
Adoxophyes orana   F.v.R.   The  results of our studies show that the
computer program developed for A. orana can be also used for computer-
based prediction of egg hatching in A. rozana.
KEY WORDS: Archips rozana, Tortricidae, orchards, Russia
The tortricid moth  Archips  rozana L. is a broad-spectrum  polyphage
damaging almost   all  deciduous  tree  and  shrub  species  in  many
countries of Europe and Palearctic Asia (Vasiliyev,  Lifshitz, 1984).
It is   most  destructive  in  orchards of South Russia,  Ukraine and
Moldova (Pralya,  1992).  It is a monovoltine species  with  obligate
diapause. Its eggs overwinter in egg-masses on smoth parts of bark of
trunks and main branches of trees,  and in the lower part of the most
thick branches of berry shrubs. The average number of eggs in the egg
-mass is 46 and the average survival of eggs  during  the  winter  is
50%, with   the hatching rate being highly variable (Miniailo et al.,
    The economic damage threshold of A.  rozana has  been  considered
more or   less well defined both from egg-mass counts in autumn,  and
from number of young larvae in  inflorenscences  in  spring  (Bychko,
1970; Vasiliyev,    Lifshitz,  1984; Skliarov,  1986).  However,  the
question of optimum dates of fruit-tree protection  in  early  spring
remains open,    especially  as  it  concerns the use of computerized
systems in pest  and  disease  prediction  (Grichanov,   Karpilovsky,
1991). Thus  for example, Garnaga and Chernyi (1981) recommended that
apple trees should be sprayed with insecticides at  the  overwintered
egg hatch   of  30%,  that is before blooming,  whereas Pralia (1992)
considered it better to be done after blooming,  explaining it by the
fact that   larvae  have  no  significant  influence  on quantitative
indices of yield before fruit start growing.  The influence  of  mean
daily temperatures     on  the  dynamics  of  egg  hatching  was  not
Our aim was to clarify the phenology of A. rozana on the basis of the
pest and weather monitoring in the study area  and  to  identify  the
weather parameters   to  be  used as predictors in a model permitting
computer-based warning of attacks  of  the  damaging  stage  of  this
species. The    field  work  was carried on in the laboratory located
within the territory of the Vinogradar state farm (Port-Katon,   Azov
district, Rostov area, North Caucasus) in 1993.
    Weather conditions   were  monitored  using  the  Austrian  KMS-P
station that recorded the main weather data each our and produced the
information summaries  over 24-hour periods.  In addition,  the KMS-P
station provided effective temperature sums and daily  rates  of  egg
development and hatching computed from daily temperatures (Minks,  De
Jong, 1975).
    Based on  the  data  on  phenology  of  this  pest   known   from
literature, we could do our field work during the definite periods of
the pest development.
    The studies were conducted in two blocks of a young apple orchard
predominated by    winter  varieties  of  Malus  domestica  L.   (Red
Delicious, Corey,   Semirenko and  Aidored);  in  an  alycha  orchard
(Prunus devaricata   Ldb.:   Rumianoye  Yablochko,   Dessertnaya  and
Obilnaya), and  in a plum orchard (Prunus domestica  L.:   Renclaude,
Altana, Vengerka and others).
    The dynamics of moth flight was  studied  using  pheromone  traps
from June   7  to  August  5.  The technique of trap installation and
operation was as recommended by the current  practical  manuals.   At
first insects  were sampled once a day,  and later (after first moths
were trapped)  1 or 2 times a week.  Sticky bottoms were  changed  as
they bacame dirty.
    Egg hatching estimations were made in spring from April 27 to May
9 in   the  alycha  orchard  where  the density of egg-masses was the
highest. For this purpose, 2-m long sections of main branches of each
of 20   or  30  trees  were thoroughly examined for egg-masses and at
least 10 egg-masses were brought to the laboratory  where  they  were
examined under microscope for eggs hatched.  These eggs can be easily
distinguished by exit holes of larvae.  The data on egg hatching were
compared with weather data provided by the KMS-P station.
The influence  of  temperature on embryonic development of A.  rozana
was estimated by the method suggested by Minks and De Jong (1975) who
found a  strong linear correlation between the mean daily temperature
and the proportion of eggs hatched in Adoxophyes  orana.   Using  the
initial data   of the above authors we made the following equation of
regression (r = 0.997):
    Y = 0.996 X - 8.98 _+ .0.197,
where  X - mean  daily  temperature,  Y - expected proportion of eggs
    To test the program stored in the memory of the KMS-P station, we
compared the   output  data (mean daily temperature and proportion of
eggs hatched)  for the period of April 27 -  May  9.   The  resulting
equation of regression (r = 0.947)
    Y = 0.956 X - 8.22 _+ .0.620
is not very different from  the above. The difference is probably due
to rounding error.
    The actual  relation between the proportion of eggs hatched in A.
rozana and the mean daily temperature was as follows (correlation  of
medium strength, r = 0.558):
    Y = 1.110 X - 10.82 _+ .2.931.
Here  the  regression  line has a more gentle slope,  but taking into
account the larger standard  error  for  Y  and  a  small  number  of
observations, we can conclude that mean daily temperature is of about
equal importance in determining  the  egg  hatching  dynamics  in  A.
rozana in spring and A. orana in summer.
    Further regression  analysis  was  carried  out  by   accumulated
totals. The   actual proportion of eggs hatched from the overwintered
egg-masses of A.  rozana almost completely agreed with the  estimated
values of eggs hatching dynamics (r = 0.993).
    We also  compared  the   accumulation   dynamics   of   effective
temperature sums above 10 'C and the proportion of eggs hatched.  For
A. orana  the regression equation for the proportion of eggs  hatched
(Y, estimated)   based on the actual sum of effective temperature (X)
    Y = 1.066  X - 3.69 _+ .0.795 (r = 0.999),
and for A. rozana (observed data):
    Y = 0.958 X - 1.19 _+ .2.406 (r = 0.994).
In both cases the regression lines appeared  to  be  practically  the
same. So,     the  sum  of effective temperatures can also be used to
estimate the proportion of eggs hatched (%).
    The duration  of  periods of egg hatching varies with temperature
and is  one  of  the  factors  determining  the  number  of  chemical
treatments. Despite  the differences in biology between A. rozana and
A. orana, their egg development conforms to common rules (Table 1).
    The experts  from  the  Plant  Protection  Institute  in   Vienna
(Austria) have    shown  that  the  relation  between temperature and
embryonic development dates found for A.  orana in Holland (De  Jong,
Minks, 1981)  is also suitable for practical use in Germany, Austria,
Yugoslavia and other countries (KMS-P,  Concise specification, 1991).
The results   of  our  investigations  show that the computer program
developed for A. orana can be also used for computer-based prediction
of egg hatching in A.  rozana and,  possibly, some other leaf-rollers
occuring in Priazovye area.  The minimum night and  the  maximum  day
temperatures can  be also used for this purpose.  The Holland workers
De Jong and Minks (1981)  suggested a simple method to determine  the
rate of   egg-development of A.  orana per 24 hours (Fig.  5 in cited
    However, the  practical  use  of the station for warning purposes
can vary with phenology of these two tortricid species.  Daily counts
of egg hatch in A.  orana should be started from the beginning of the
stable flight period or from the peak of the flight as recorded  with
pheromone traps (Minks,  De Jong,  1975). In contrast to A. orana, A.
rozana overwinters   as  egg,   so  the  readings  taken   from   the
agrometeorological station    in  early  spring  before  the  sum  of
effective temperatures reaches 20 'C do not represent  the  real  egg
hatch but   favourable  conditions  for  embryonic development of the
pest. Once  egg hatching began,  the observed and estimated data were
practically coincident,  and the timing of control (if necessary)  of
both A.  orana and A.  rozana is based  on  mass  egg  hatching  (the
optimum control   dates recommended by the Austrian KMS-P station are
those when the accumulated total is equal to 100%).
    Automatic calculation  of  effective  temperature  sums continued
until the end of A.  rozana flight  (Table  2).   Comparison  of  the
observed and literature data has shown that the development threshold
of 10 'C is quite suitable to be used in warning on the  phenological
events in   A.   rozana.   The  use of this threshold seems justified
because most automatic agrometeorological stations are programmed for
at least   several  pest  species,   and  one threshold for all makes
practical prediction more convenient.
    In orchards  of  Port-Katon  increased  moth catches in pheromone
traps were recorded in alycha (3 males per trap a day) with two peaks:
on June  18  and  July  20.  In the apple and plum orchards the  male
catches did not exceed one moth per trap, with no second peak at all.
A sharp decrease in moth flight in all orchards after June 22 can be,
possibly, explained by lowered  temperatures  and  more  rainfall  at
night. However,   our  special  investigation  could  not  reveal any
significant relation between these factors.
    Thus, during  the  studies conducted  in  1993 a rapid method for
monitoring A.   rozana  on  the  basis  of  automatic  recordings  of
meteopredictors has  been tested.  It has been shown that the warning
program for A.   orana  stored  in  the  Austrian  agrometeorological
station KMS-P   needs  only minimum updating to be used for phenology
prediction of A.  rozana in the steppe zone of North  Caucasus.   The
sums of effective temperatures above the threshold of 10 'C are quite
suitable for monitoring the phenological phases in A. rozana.


Bichina, T.I.; Goncharenko,  E.G.: The orchard leaf-rollers and their
    entomophages. Kishinev, 1981, 150 S. (in Russian)
Burkova, L.A.  Resistance of orchard leaf-rollers and its overcoming.
    Avtoreferat diss.  kand.  biol.  nauk, Leningrad, 1970, 18 S. (in
De Jong,  D.J.; Minks, A.K.: Studies on Adoxophyes orana,  the  major
    leafroller  pest  in  apple  orchards  in the Netherlands.  Mitt.
    Schweiz. Ent. Ges. _54. (3) (1981), 205-214
Egurasdova, A.S.;  Poliakov,   I.Y.:   Phytosanitary  diagnostics and
    forecasting in modern plant protection.  Moscow, VINITI, 1990, 56
    S. (in Russian)
Garnaga, N.G.; Chernyi,  A.I.:  The tortricid  moth  Archips  rozana.
    Zashchita Rast. _5. (1981), 39 (in Russian)
Grichanov, I.Y.;   Karpilivsky, L. N.:   Computer-based  approach  to
    collection, handling  and use  of information for forecasting and
    warning the occurence of crop pests.  Agrometeorol.  Res. i Prod.
    Prots. v Rast., Kiev, 1991, 147-149 (in Russian)
KMS-P Agrometeorological Station,  Concise specification, Graz, 1991
Miniailo, V.A.; Miniailo, A.K.; Poiras, A.A.; Shaplyko, Y.S. Seasonal
    dynamics of flight into traps baited with synthetic sex pheromone
    in Archips rozana.  Integr. Zashch. Selsk. Rast., Kishinev, 1985,
    53-57 (in Russian)
Miniailo, V.A.; Miniailo,  A.K.; Tuganov,  S.P.; Poiras, A.A.: To the
    assessment of survival and causes of overwintered egg  losses  in
    Archips rozana. Ekologiya _5. (1990), 41-46 (in Russian)
Minks, A.K.; De Jong,  D.J.:  Determination  of  spraying  dates  for
    Adoxophyes orana by sex pheromone traps and temperature recordings.
    J. econ. Ent. _68. (5) (1975), 729-732
Skliarov, N.A.:   Economic  efficiency  of  the  shortened program of
    chemical pest control in commercial apple orchards.  Sadovod.   i
    Vinograd. Moldavii _10. (1987), 50-52 (in Russian)
Vasiliyev, V.P.; Lifshitz, I.Z.: Pests of fruit crops. Moscow, Kolos,
    1984, 399 S. (in Russian).

_Table 1. The dynamics of egg hatching in Archips rozana as observed in
the orchard   and  predicted  by  the  KMS-P  station  (Rostov  area,
Port-Katon, 1993)
                                                    Proportion of
           Sum of     Minimum     Maximum   Mean   overwintered egg
Sampling  effective    daily       daily    daily  hatch in the pest
 date      tempe-      tempe-      tempe-   tempe-   (accumulated
          ratures      rature      rature   rature    total in %)
                                                  Observed  Predicted
27.04       21          5.9          18.4   12.15    20.3      17.4
28.04       25         10.3          19.3   14.8     23.3      22.9
29.04       29          9.3          16.9   13.1     26.6      27.9
30.04       33          5.6          18.5   12.05    29.5      31.7
 1.05       37          8.5          18.5   13.5     32.7      35.4
 2.05       42         11.2          18.5   14.85    37.5      41.3
 3.05       49         12.5          21.4   16.95    43.4      49.2
 4.05       56          9.9          23.4   16.65    54.6      56.7
 5.05       64         11.9          22.4   17.15    60.5      65.7
 6.05       72          6.5          24.0   15.25    72.0      71.8
 7.05       80         13.4          22.5   17.95    77.95 *)  81.3
 9.05       89          6.8          19.1   12.95    79.8  *)  91.0
*) With  egg  losses  taken into account:  warm dry and windy weather
during the first 10-day period of May contributed to drying up of egg
-masses, especially along the edges of small egg-masses.
_Table 2.   Sums of effective temperatures for development stages of A.
rozana (Rostov area, Port-Katon, 1993)
                        Sums of effective temperatures for each stage
 Date   Development     _____________________________________________
           stage           Observed data         Literature data *)
                        (threshold of 10'C)      (threshold of 8'C)
27.04  First records            21                    25 - 57
       of eggs hatched
4.05-  Mass egg              49 - 72                  58 - 70
5.05   hatching
5.06   Beginning of            256                   274 - 289
14.06  Beginning of            340                   310 - 410
       moth flight
27.07- End of moth          813 - 864                649 - 880
31.07  flight

*) Bychko,    1970  (South  Ukraine);  Bichina,   Goncharenko,   1981
(Moldavia); Miniailo et al., 1985 (Moldavia); Burkova, 1988 (Crimea);
Pralia, 1992 (Krasnodar Territory a.o.).

Dolichopodidae Homepage
Hosted by uCoz