KEY TO SWEDISH GENERA OF DOLICHOPODIDAE

by I.Ya. Grichanov

Igor Grichanov, All-Russian Institute of Plant Protection, Podbelskogo 3, St. Petersburg, Pushkin, Russia.E-mail: grichanov@hotbox.ru
Last updated: 27 April 2003 


Foreword
Introduction
Swedish Dolichopodidae
Systematic position of Dolichopodidae
Morphology of Dolichopodidae
Basic references
KEY TO GENERA OF DOLICHOPODIDAE


Acknowledgements



Foreword

Below are working materials that will be corrected during the 2003, supplemented with illustrations and published as separate book. The only goal of this publication is to collect comments and recommendations to improve the tables. To find species keys, please, click the  name of a genus. 

Introduction
The Dolichopodidae fauna of the world is very large, with approximately 6500 described species and 200 genera (Grichanov, 1999). These mostly predatory flies are distributed throughout the world including the tropics and high-latitude islands and territories. In Sweden adults and larvae of almost all species of long-legged flies are predators inhabiting moist substrata. Small-sized species may be saprophages in the larval stage. Species of only one genus (Thrypticus) are known to be phytophages living inside stems of cereal grasses. Most of the numerous species of the cosmopolitan genus Medetera are associated with tree trunks, especially in boreal forests, where their larvae are predacious mainly on bark-beetles (Coleoptera).

Swedish Dolichopodidae

Beginning from Carolus Linnaeus, the Swedish scientists of XVIIIXIX century held leading position in describing European and World dipterofauna. Zetterstedt, Falln, Roth, Wahlberg, Stenhammar, Schiner and some others made an important contribution to the study of Dolichopodidae, and the country had become one of the best-studied regions of comparable area in the world. Wahlgren (1912) and Ringdahl (1928) summarised the known data about the Swedish fauna of the family. Nevertheless, there were no published keys to genera and species of Swedish Dolichopodidae since the work of Wahlgren (1912) that included 192 species.
Now 334 species and 32 genera are known in Sweden, belonging to the following nine subfamilies: Achalcinae, Diaphorinae, Dolichopodinae, Hydrophorinae, Medeterinae, Neurigoninae, Rhaphiinae, Sciapodinae and Sympycninae. However, Achalcinae, Neurigoninae, Rhaphiinae and Sciapodinae each contain only one genus known from Sweden, whereas definition of the other subfamilies is far from an ideal state. A number of new subfamilies and tribes have been proposed in the second half of the XX century that means that a revision of the family systematics on the global scale is needed. So, we do not think that a key to subfamilies is necessary to give in this work.

Systematic position of Dolichopodidae

The family Dolichopodidae belongs to the superfamily Empidoidea, of which Microphoridae is the closest by morphology and genetics to some subfamilies of long-legged flies (Chvla, 1983; Collins & Wiegmann, 2002). Empidoidea is the monophyletic group within so-called Lower Brachycera or Brachycera Orthorrhapha. Nevertheless, the extant Diptera are divided usually into two suborders, Nematocera and Brachycera.
Dolichopodidae may be distinguished from other Diptera by the following key, based on dAssis Fonseca (1978), Chvla (1983), and Papp & Schumann (2000):
1. Antenna usually long, with scape and pedicel and at least 6 homonomous flagellomeres, usually longer than head and thorax combined; palpi usually with 3-5 segments ...  Nematocera
Antenna shorter; scape and pedicel usually short; the other antennomeres (usually less than 6 segments) heteronomous, differing from one another; palpi usually with 1 or 2 segments ...  2
2. Frontal lunule present (a crescent-shaped area immediately above antennal sockets) ... Cyclorrhapha-Schizophora
No lunule above antennae ...  3
3. Tarsal empodium in the form of pulvilli, i.e., 3 subequal pads below claws ...   ... Stratiomyidae, Xylophagidae, Rhagionidae, Tabanidae et al.
Empodium bristle-like or not discernible, at most at most 2 well-developed pads below claws ...  4
4. Basal cells of wing long; vein CuA2 long, reaching wing margin near A1, or joining A1 close to wing margin (at less than a quarter of its length back from wing margin)  ...   ... Asilidae, Syrphidae, Bombyliidae, Therevidae, Pipunculidae et al.
Second basal cell short, or even confluent with discal cell; anal cell short and closed or absent; vein CuA2 absent, reduced, or joining A1 far from wing margin ...  5
5. Wing venation without any crossvein in median region of wing ...   ...  Lonchopteridae, Opetiidae, Phoridae
Venation with at least one crossvein in median region of wing ...  6
6. Wing with both A1 and Sc reaching wing margin, and with posterior cubital cell (cup) acute at posterior apex; hind tarsus, at least in male, with one or more basal segments expanded and flattened; arista (stylus) 3-segmented, terminally situated ...  Platypezidae
If A1 reaching wing margin, then either Sc incomplete or cup obtuse or rounded at posterior apex, or cup very small; basal segments of hind tarsus rarely expanded or flattened ...  7

7. Vein R4+5 forked; if not, then either prosternum large (fused with episterna) and metapleura usually bristled, or costa running around the wing. Antennal scape bristled, at least with a few bristly hairs beneath; male hypopygium symmetrical and unrotated ...  Empididae

Vein R4+5 not forked; prosternum in the form of a small sclerite separated by membrane from the episterna (except Dolichopodidae), costa ending at wing tip (except Microphoridae) and metapleura always bare; antennal scape very small, without bristles beneath ...  8

8. Wing with alula; male hypopygium symmetrical and unrotated, female abdomen remarkably narrowed apically, ovipositor-like; hind tibiae (or also metatarsi) laterally compressed and dilated in both sexes ...  Atelestidae

Alula on wings greatly reduced or not developed; male hypopygium not symmetrical, rotated towards right or deflexed ...  9

9. Basal cell moderately large, anal cell differently shaped or even absent; radial sector originating well beyond humeral crossvein; front tibia with a sense organ; male hypopygium along longitudinal axis or upturned ... Hybotidae

Basal and anal cells conspicuously small, anal cell usually rounded apically; radial sector originating opposite humeral crossvein; front tibia without a sense organ, and male hypopygium deflexed ...  10

10. Discal cell present, emitting 3 veins to wing margin, veins M1 and M2 arising independently from discal cell; costa running around the wing; body black or greyish ...  Microphoridae

Discal cell fused with 2nd basal cell; M1+2 usually with a curvation or stub-like M2 at middle of its distal part (M rarely forking apically into M1 and true M2); costa ending at M1, sometimes at tip of R2+3; body generally metallic or yellow, rarely greyish ...  Dolichopodidae

Morphology of Dolichopodidae

The external morphology of the most Dolichopodidae is rather remarkable that allows easily distinguishing them in a sweeping net even from the closest Empidoidea and other flies by metallic body and mosquito-like habitus with long legs (Figs. 1-2). Multiple male colour and morphological ornaments (male secondary sexual characters or MSSC) are commonly found on antennae, mouthparts, legs, wings and abdomen in many Dolichopodidae species in addition to large genital capsule (hypopygium). This decoration developed more in tropical species marks out long-legged flies from all other Diptera (Sivinski, 1997).
The head is more or less hemispherical, at most suboval in front view. The occiput may be flat, slightly convex or (rarely) concave. The vertex at the top of the head is usually concave with somewhat projected ocellar tubercle bearing 3 ocelli. The frons is usually broad, and more or less decreasing in breadth towards the antennae, or rarely reduced to a small triangle, and the eyes are contiguous or distinctly convergent above the antennae (Diaphorus males). Three pairs of bristles could be found on the top of head: the ocellar bristles raising between ocelli; the verticals at the upper angle; and the postverticals sitting on posterior slope of the vertex. There is a row of postocular setae along the whole length of the hind margin of the eyes, adjacent to more or less dense hairs in the lower part of head. The eyes are large, suboval, densely covered with microscopical hairs, but sometimes bare (Medetera). The face may be parallel-sided, but it is often narrowing downward, sometimes greatly reduced (in Chrysotus males) or narrowing above the middle and widening downward (Campsicnemus). The face is divided by transverse suture into the upper part, epistome, and the lower part, clypeus. The suture is more or less distinct in Medeterinae and Hydrophorinae, but it is often inconspicuous in other subfamilies. The clypeus is usually adjacent to eyes, with straight lower margin, sometimes convex at apex, distinctly projecting below level of the lower eye-margin (some species of Dolichopus and Tachytrechus). The face is usually bare, rarely epistome or clypeus are covered with more or less distinct hairs or even setae. The genae (jowls) are usually rudimentary, but their height is important for distinguishing some species of Hydrophorus. The proboscis is usually short, weakly developed, but strongly elongated and projected downward in Ortochile and some species of Hercostomus. The one-jointed maxillary palps are flat, squamiform, suboval, cover proboscis anteriorly, and bear hairs on outer side and one or several bristles at apex.
The antennae are generally inserted at the upper third of head, rarely (in Diaphorus males) below the middle, each consists of the 3 segments. They are usually shorter or a little longer than the head height, in males often longer than in females. The scape (1st segment) is small, globular, sometimes with short apicoventral acute projection; the pedicel is laterally compressed, convex on inner side in majority of species, or having finger-like inner projection (Syntormon) penetrating inner side of postpedicel. The postpedicel (3rd segment or 1st flagellomere in old literature) is laterally compressed, in distal part especially, usually asymmetrical, subtriangular, rounded, suboval, lancet-like etc. The antennal stylus (arista) is bisegmented, may be basodorsal, dorsal, dorsoapical or apical, with the 2nd segment having sometimes elongated hairs or widened or flattened parts. The scape is bare or covered with more or less distinct hairs or setae above; the pedicel has usually complete ring of distal setulae; the postpedicel is covered with microscopic or comparatively long hairs.
The thorax has more or less parallelepipedic shape (subrectangular), covex laterally. Prothorax and metathorax are weakly developed. Metasternum is not pronounced; metaepimera are distinct. Mesonotum generally has lateral vestiges of transverse suture, often more or less distinctly flattened posteriorly in front of scutellum. In most species of the family the mesonotum has well developed bristles that may be grouped as follows. The acrostichals are short as a rule, arranged in one or two rows along median axis of mesonotum, or absent. Usually 6 pairs of strong dorsocentral bristles are present, with anterior 1-4 pairs being often reduced to hairs. One humeral bristle is often accompanied with one or several weak setae. 1-2 posthumeral, presutural, 3 supraalar, 1 postalar, 2 notopleural bristles may undergo a certain extent of reduction. Proepisternum may bear hairs or one or several strong setae. Metapleura glabrous; pteropleura usually glabrous, sometimes covered with more or less distinct hairs in front of posterior spiracle. Scutellum bare above or covered with hairs, bearing 2-4, rarely 6 strong marginal setae.
The legs are generally long and slender, sometimes more robust; they show very often sexual dimorphism, being variously shaped and adorned in the male, often rather peculiar; thus the tarsi (fore, mid or hind) may have one or more segments dilated or plumed or ornated with hairs, bristles or thorns, or some segments may be unusually shortened or elongated. Also the tibiae and femora may have special bristles in the males, and sometimes a fringe of long hairs below. Moreover the legs, especially the tarsi, are often longer in the male than in the female. The legs have generally short, sometimes longer hairs and setulae, and are generally provided with bristles, especially on the dorsal side of the tibiae. Sometimes the legs are less bristly or almost bare. The bristles (or setae) are divided into dorsal, ventral, anterior, posterior, anteroventral, posteroventral, anterodorsal and posterodorsal ones. The bristles on the hind tibiae are in a few genera continued out on the basitarsus. The femora have often one or more subapical or basoventral setae having significance for the taxonomy. The tibiae have also apical bristles, often small. The fore coxa has as a rule bristles or bristly hairs on the anterior or outer (external) side towards the apex, and the hind coxa have generally one, sometimes several, characteristic bristles on the outside. There are two claws, generally small, two pulvilli and empodium on the 5th segment of tarsi. In the species of Diaphorus with the pulvilli on some tarsi enlarged in the male, these tarsi have no claws.
The wings are generally long and narrow, being sometimes narrower or broader in males. They are sometimes wholly or partly darkened or more or less dark spotted. The venation is rather uniform, and it is characteristic for the family in its principal formation. The costa (C) usually (with the exception of Cryptophleps) reaches to the apex of the median vein (M1+2). There is sometimes a thickening (stigma) at the junction of first radial vein (R1) and costa. The subcostal vein (Sc) is short, either joining with R1 or ending free. R1 reaches C in the basal half of wing. The radial veins (R1, R2+3 and R4+5) are unforked. The vein M1+2 is generally also unforked, only forked in Sciapus and other (non-Swedish) genera, and with a tendency towards forking in some other genera. The distal part of M1+2 (the part behind the posterior cross-vein, or m-cu) is as a rule more or less curved, or angularly bent; there are all gradations from a quite rectangular bend, sometimes with small stub-vein M2, through a smaller, more obtuse or rounded curvature to a quite shallow and gentle, sometimes scarcely perceptible flexure, and finally the vein may be quite straight and parallel with R4+5. The position of m-cu (closer to the wing base or to the middle of the wing) sometimes has taxonomic significance. The cubital vein (CuA1) is divided by m-cu into basal (proximal) and distal (apical) parts, with ratio of the latter and m-cu being important distinguishing feature. The anal vein (A1+CuA2) is generally abbreviated or fold-like, not reaching the margin. The anal lobe larger or smaller, sometimes wanting in males, and the wing then cuneiform. Alula very small in Swedish species, the margin here generally with somewhat long hairs. The lower calypter is directed upwards, bearing a fan of long cilia or bristles. 
Abdomen longer or shorter, sometimes even shorter than thorax (e.g., Hydrophorus); it is usually more or less narrowed towards the end and thus sometimes conical. In the female it is generally pointed. The abdominal tergites are much broader than the sternites, and arched. The 1st tergite is generally shorter than the following; the 1st sternite is greatly reduced, at most forming a small chitinisation just in front of the 2nd. In the male the abdomen has eight segments, then follows the hypopygium, formed of the ninth segment. Sometimes all segments are visible, but often some of the pregenital segments are hidden, so that only five or six segments are visible anterior to the hypopygium. Fifth and sixth sternites are often membranous and folded up grove-like, so that a smaller or larger cavity for the reception of the hypopygium is formed. The 7th segment is generally asymmetrical; it has membranous sternite and chitinised tergite, forming sometimes well-developed stalk or peduncle. The eighth tergite is scale-like, often roundish, rarely having rudiment of sternite at ventral angle, and it lies always on the left side of the hypoopygium, covering epandrial foramen. The epandrium (ninth tergite) may vary considerably in size and shape; it is generally somewhat oval, and more or less elongated, or short and roundish; it is more or less asymmetrical in basal and ventral halves. On the ventral side it is deeply invaginated, being opened ventrally and apically (sometimes only apically). The sides of the cavity are often forming more or less distinct ventral epandrial lobes bearing epandrial setae. The hypandrium (ninth sternite) is usually fused ventrally with epandrium to various extent, rarely articulated. The hypandrium covers partly the aedeagus (penis, phallus, phallosome). Both hypandrium and aedeagus may bear lateral lobes and be of various shape, having sometimes key value for distinguishing sister species (e.g., in Chrysotus and Medetera). There are two pairs of surstyli at distal apex, specialised clasping lobes that originate as lateral outgrowths of the epandrium, with ventral and dorsal arms being often fused to various extent. The unpaired postgonite is located between surstyli or between cerci; it is often simple and hidden, sometimes symmetrically or asymmetrically lobated, but may have quite various shape. The cercus, usually large one-segmented scale-like, or sometimes filiform lobes, are located at distodorsal apex of epandrium. They may also be subtriangular, roundish, elongated, forked or of other shape; they are generally hairy, and the margin is not rarely split into teeth and has long, more or less curved or flattened setae. Sometimes the cerci are partly fused basally. The cerci together with the other structures of hypopygium bear very important taxonomical load, but they are often not visible without dissection and maceration in alkali, especially when hypopygium is embedded.
In the female the abdomen has generally five visible segments, the following (postabdominal) are more or less tapered and retracted into the preceding segments, forming a telescoped ovipositor (or oviscapt), but sometimes all segments are seen. The sclerites of these retractible segments are often subdivided, reduced, or absent, while the membranous areas are enlarged, so that the ovipositor is flexible and predominantly membranous. Nevertheless, females of Thrypticus have strongly sclerotised knife-shaped ovipositor adapted for piercing plant tissues. The cerci and anus, as well as genital opening are positioned posteriorly of 8th sternum. Ninth and tenth tergites are fused, often divided with longitudinal membranous zone into hemitergites (acanthophorites) bearing usually thick or spine-like paired dorsal setae. The anal plate is probably homologous with 10th sternite.

Basic references

Keys presented below are compiled on the base of British, French, German and Russian manuals and keys to species of Dolichopodidae. Some recent European and Palearctic revisions of small genera or species groups are also used. Several old species are known by females only and there are some unverified records of Dolichopodidae from the country, which means that adjustments to the list should be anticipated. At the same time a few species described from neighbouring Nordic countries may be found in Sweden as well.
The keys to Swedish genera and species of Dolichopodidae are compiled for advanced users. Before using them I would strongly recommend to get acquaintance with introductory chapters from the Contributions to a manual of Palaearctic Diptera (Papp & Darvas, 2000) and Manual of Nearctic Diptera (McAlpine, et al., 1981-1989). For English readers some introductory notes may be useful (despite the different terminology) from Lundbeck (1912), Robinson (1970, 1975), Dyte (1975), dAssis Fonseca (1978), Bickel & Dyte (1989), and Bickel (1992, 1994). A great number of valuable illustrations together with introductions, keys and species descriptions in French, German and Russian could be found in Parent (1938), Lindner (1930-1979), Negrobov & Stackelberg (1969). See also web-sites: http://www.ifrance.com/Dolicho/ (in French) and http://members.fortunecity.com/grichanov/ (in English) devoted to Dolichopodidae.
KEY TO GENERA OF DOLICHOPODIDAE
Males
1. Wing vein M2 present, almost reaching wing margin ... Sciapus
 Vein M2 absent or stub-like, without fold or indication on membrane ...  2
2. Costa of wing ending at tip of R2+3; M1+2 weak or broken near middle of distal part ...  3
 Costa of wing extending to tip of M1+2; M1+2 never weaker near middle of distal part ...  4
3. Male hypopygium usually with strong macrochaetae; acrostichals usually present ...   ... Asyndetus (absent in Sweden)
 Male hypopygium without strong macrochaetae; acrostichals absent or microscopic; 1.5 ... Cryptophleps kerteszi Lichtwardt
4. Antennal pedicel, seen on inside face, forming a more or less long thumb-like projection into postpedicel ... Syntormon
Antennal pedicel simple, vaselike, without thumb-like projection ...  5
5. Acrostichal setae absent ...  6
Acrostichals distinct, even though sometimes small ...  15
6. Face divided into epistome and clypeus by transversal suture, and this division is distinctly pronounced along width of face (from eye to eye) ...  7
Facial suture indistinct or hardly marked at eye margin ...  11
7. Occiput concave, and head adjacent to thorax; postvertical setae absent; eyes bare or almost bare ... Medetera
Occiput convex, and head not adjacent to thorax; postvertical setae present; eyes haired ...  8
8. Face narrow, not wider than ocellar tubercle; hypopygium free; 3.0.Figs. 84, 85 ... Peodes forcipatus Loew

Face wide, wider than ocellar tubercle; hypopygium usually sessile ...  9

9. 4 pairs of dorsocentral setae; antennal stylus subapical ...  Thinophilus (part)

5-6 pairs of dorsocentral setae; antennal stylus dorsal ...  10

10. Fore femur and tibia with strong and long ventral spines; male abdomen behind segment IV with long remarkable appendices ...  Scellus

Fore femur and tibia without long ventral spines; abdomen behind segment IV without appendices ... Thinophilus

11. Hind femur without subapical bristle ...  12

Hind femur with subapical bristle ...  13

12. Hind basitarsus distinctly shorter than 2nd tarsomere; body mostly black; bristles on head and thorax dark; veins R4+5 and M1+2 more or less parallel; legs brownish black; 1.75.Fig. 10 ...   ... Acropsilus niger (Loew)

Hind basitarsus about equal in length to 2nd tarsomere; body mostly yellow; head and thorax with yellow bristles; R4+5 and M1+2 convergent ...  Xanthochlorus

13. Face narrow in middle, extending downward ...  Campsicnemus

 Face narrowed more or less gradually downward ...  14

14. Body light green, metallic shining; head and thorax with yellow bristles ...  Chrysotimus

Body brown, not shining; head and thorax with dark bristles ...  Micromorphus

15. Acrostichal setae uniseriate at least in anterior part ...  16

Acrostichal setae in two regular rows ...  26

16. Body light green, metallic shining; head and thorax with yellow bristles ...  Chrysotimus

Different characters ...  17

17. Antennal stylus apical or subapical; scape with hairs above ...  Syntormon(part)

Stylus dorsal ...  18

18. Face divided into epistome and clypeus by transversal suture, and this division is distinctly pronounced along width of face (from eye to eye) ...  19

Facial suture indistinct or hardly marked at eye margin ...  22

19. Fore femur and tibia with strong spiniform ventral bristles; the bristles arranged usually in longitudinal rows ... 20

Fore femur and tibia without strong spiniform ventral bristles ...  21

20. Postpedicel with apicoventral incision; proepisternal setae not developed, rarely 1 seta present; scutellum with 4 setae usually; abdomen behind segment IV without appendices ...  Hydrophorus

Postpedicel without apicoventral incision; 3 proepisternal setae; scutellum with 2 setae; abdomen behind segment IV with long remarkable appendices ...  Scellus

21. Face narrow, not wider than ocellar tubercle; hypopygium globular, free, with 2 long baculiform projections; posterior crossvein m-cu shorter than distal part of CuA1; 3.0 (see above) ...  Peodes forcipatus Loew

Face wider; m-cu at least as long as distal part of CuA1; scutellum with 6 setae of equal length; 6 pairs of dorsocentral setae; proepisternal setae not developed; 7.0-8.0.Fig. 83 ...   ... Liancalus virens (Scopoli)

22. Face narrow in middle, extending downward ...  Campsicnemus

 Face narrowed gradually downward or with more or less parallel sides ...  23

23. 4 pairs of dorsocentral setae; antennal stylus lanceolate at apex; 2.0  ...   ... Telmaturgus tumidulus (Raddatz)

At least 5 pairs of dorsocentral setae; stylus not lanceolate at apex ...  24

24. Occiput concave, and head adjacent to thorax; hypopygium with strong setae; hind femur without subapical setae; face more or less parallel sided; 2.0 ...   ... Melanostolus melancholicus (Loew)

Occiput convex; hypopygium without strong setae; hind femur with subapical setae; face narrowed downward ... 25

25. Five pairs of strong dorsocentral bristles; mid femur with ventral bristles in basal part; wing costa with long and thick stigma beyond R1 ... Teuchophorus

 Six pairs of dorsocentral bristles; mid femur without ventral bristles; wing costa without stigma beyond R1 ... Sympycnus

26. Scape with hairs above ...  27

 Scape bare above ...  33

27. Occiput concave, and head adjacent to thorax; hypopygium concealed; epandrial lobe and cercus small; hind coxa with vertical row of fine setae; hind femur without subapical seta ...  Argyra

Occiput convex; hypopygium free; cercus big and also free; hind coxa with one seta; hind femur with subapical seta ... 28

28. Antennal stylus long pubescent; with hairs approximately 1.5 times longer than basal diameter of stylus; notopleuron having strongly pronounced purple spot; male cercus elongate-triangular, strongly incised along ventral margin ...  Hercostomus (Poecilobothrus)

Antennal stylus bare, rarely pubescent; notopleuron usually without purple spot; cercus various ...  29

29. Hind basitarsus with distinct bristle above ...  Dolichopus

 Hind basitarsus without bristles above ...  30

30. Proboscis long and narrow, at least 1.5 times longer than height of head; palpus long and narrow, adjacent to proboscis; veins R1, R2+3 and R4+5 positioned close to anterior wing margin; 3.0. Fig. 138 ... Ortochile nigrocoerulea Latreille

Proboscis thick and short, not longer than height of head; palpus short, or if long, then comparatively broad ... 31

31. Several strong anterodorsal setae in apical half of the hind femur in addition to the true anterior subapical seta; face narrowed under antennae and somewhat widened towards clypeus; wing vein M1+2 usually with gentle curvation before the middle of distal part, then running towards R4+5 and reaching costa far before the tip of wing; arista short and bare; first flagellomere usually short and suboval ...  Tachytrechus

 Hind femur with one true anterior subapical seta; face regularly narrowed towards clypeus or parallel-sided; wing vein M1+2 either with curvation beyond the middle of distal part or M1+2 reaching costa near the tip of wing; arista often pubescent; first flagellomere usually subtriangular, asymmetric ...  32

32. Hypopygium very long, with long peduncle (7th segment); surstylus long, clavate, with long cilia at apex; abdomen long; legs long and thin ...  Sybistroma

Hypopygium moderately long, sessile or having short peduncle; surstylus usually short; abdomen and legs ordinary ...  Hercostomus

33. Face divided into epistome and clypeus by transversal suture, and this division is distinctly pronounced along width of face (from eye to eye); posterior slope of mesonotum distinctly flattened between dorsocentral setae ... 34

Facial suture indistinct or hardly marked at eye margin ...  35

34. R4+5 and M1+2 convergent, at most subparallel at apex; thorax densely pollinose; male surstylus and cercus usually not deflexed dorsad ...  Medetera

 R4+5 and M1+2 parallel to apex; thorax shining green; male surstylus strongly deflexed dorsad, usually lying conformably with similarly deflexed, oblong-shaped cerci ...  Thrypticus

35. Hind coxa on outer side without seta, or with vertical row of setiform hairs, or covered with dense hairs  ... 36

Hind coxa with at least one strong external seta  ...  37

36. Occiput concave, and head adjacent to thorax; hind coxa with vertical row of fine setae; antennal stylus subapical ...  Argyra (Leucostola)

Occiput convex; hind coxa on outer side covered with dense hairs; antennal stylus apical ... Rhaphium (part)

37. Hind femur without true subapical seta ...  38

Hind femur with true subapical seta ...  43

38. Male face broad, eyes contiguous or distinctly convergent above antennae; mid tibia often with ventral seta; hypopygium with strong macrochetae ... Diaphorus

Male frons broad, eyes distinctly convergent or contiguous below antennae; mid tibia rarely with ventral seta; hypopygium rarely with strong macrochetae ...  39

39. Eyes strongly convergent or contiguous below antennae ...  Chrysotus

Eyes distinctly separated below antennae, or slightly convergent towards palpi ...  40

40. Antennal stylus dorsal ...  41

Stylus apical or strictly subapical ...  42

41. Hypopygium free; legs long and thin; body mostly yellow ...  Neurigona

Hypopygium sessile; legs of ordinary length and width; body metallic green; 2.0 ...   ... Melanostolus melancholicus(Loew)

42. Hypopygium pedunculate; hind basitarsus at most half as long as next segment of same tarsus ... Systenus

Hypopygium sessile; hind basitarsus barely shorter than next segment of same tarsus ...   ... Rhaphium (part)

43. Antennal stylus apical ...  44

Stylus dorsal ...  45

44. R4+5 and M1+2 slightly to distinctly divergent; A2 absent; body without metallic shine or weakly shining ... Achalcus

R4+5 and M1+2 not divergent; A2 present; body bronze green, metallic shining ...  Rhaphium (part)

45. Four pairs of dorsocentral setae; mesonotum with two large velvety black lateral spots; 2.0 ... Lamprochromus bifasciatus (Macquart)

Six pairs of dorsocentral setae; mesonotum without velvety black lateral spots ...  Sympycnus

Females

1. Wing vein M2 present, almost reaching wing margin ... Sciapus

 Vein M2 absent or stub-like, without fold or indication on membrane ...  2

2. Costa of wing ending at tip of R2+3; M1+2 weak or broken near middle of distal part ...  3

Costa of wing extending to tip of M1+2; M1+2 never weaker near middle of distal part ...  4

3. Acrostichals usually present ...  Asyndetus

 Acrostichals absent or microscopic ...  Cryptophleps

4. Antennal pedicel, seen on inside face, forming a more or less long thumb-like projection into postpedicel ... Syntormon

Antennal pedicel simple, vaselike, without thumb-like projection ...  5

5. Acrostichal setae absent ...  6

Acrostichals distinct, even though sometimes small ...  16

6. Hind femur without subapical bristle ...  7

Hind femur with subapical bristle ...  9

7. Hind basitarsus about two fifth length of 2nd tarsomere; body mostly black; legs brownish black; 1.75 ... Acropsilus niger (Loew)

Hind basitarsus about equal in length to 2nd tarsomere ...  8

8. R4+5 and M1+2 distinctly convergent; body mostly yellow; head and thorax with yellow bristles ... Xanthochlorus

R4+5 and M1+2 more or less parallel or barely convergent; body not yellow; head and thorax with dark bristles ...  Thinophilus

9. Occiput concave, and head adjacent to thorax; R4+5 and M1+2 straight, slightly convergent apicad; usually 3 dorsocentral setae; eyes bare ...  Medetera

Occiput convex; eyes haired; 4-5 or more dorsocentral setae; R4+5 and M1+2 more or less parallel ...  10

10. 4-5 dorsocentral setae ...  11

At least 6 dorsocentral setae ...  14

11. Face narrow in middle, extending downward ...  Campsicnemus

 Face narrowed regularly downward or parallel-sided ...  12

12. Head and thorax with yellow bristles; mesonotum light metallic green, shining; abdomen mostly or entirely yellow ...  Chrysotimus

Head and thorax with dark bristles; mesonotum and abdomen dark metallic green ...  13

13. Face divided into epistome and clypeus by transversal suture; wing with two brown spots ... Thinophilus (part)

Facial suture indistinct; wing hyaline, without spots ...  Micromorphus

14. Fore femur with row of strong and long ventral spines ...  Scellus

Fore femur without strong ventral spines ...  15

15. Three proepisternal setae; R4+5 and M1+2 curved, more or less convergent apicad ...  Thinophilus

One proepisternal setae; R4+5 and M1+2 straight, more or less parallel ...  Peodes

16. Acrostichal setae uniseriate at least in anterior part ...  17

Acrostichal setae in two regular rows ...  26

17. Body light green, metallic shining; abdomen mat yellow, with black apex ...  Chrysotimus

Different characters ...  18

16. Antennal stylus apical or strictly subapical; scape with hairs above; hind femur with one subapical bristle ... Syntormon(part)

Stylus dorsal ...  17

17. Face divided into epistome and clypeus by transversal suture, and this division is distinctly pronounced along width of face (from eye to eye); m-cu usually equal to or longer than distal part of CuA1 ...  18

Facial suture indistinct or hardly marked at eye margin; m-cu usually shorter than distal part of CuA1 ... 21

18. Fore femur and tibia armed with more or less developed ventral setae or spines ...  19

Fore legs not armed ...  20

19. Postpedicel with apicoventral incision; proepisternal setae not developed, rarely 1 seta present; scutellum with 4 setae usually, rarely with 2 setae; fore tibia with short ventral setae or spicules ... Hydrophorus

Postpedicel without apicoventral incision; 3 proepisternal setae; scutellum with 2 setae; fore femur and tibia with long ventral setae ...  Scellus

20. Posterior crossvein m-cu distinctly shorter than distal part of CuA1; smaller flies ...  Peodes

m-cu at least as long as distal part of CuA1, oblique; scutellum with 6 setae of equal length; larger flies ... Liancalus virens(Scopoli)

21. Hind femur without true subapical seta ...  22

Hind femur with true subapical seta ...  23

22. Occiput convex; clypeus strongly convex; antennal stylus long pubescent ...   ... Telmaturgus tumidulus (Raddatz)

Occiput concave, and head adjacent to thorax; clypeus not convex; stylus almost bare ... Melanostolus melancholicus(Loew)

23. Scape with hairs above ...  Syntormon(part)

 Scape bare above ...  24

24. Six pairs of dorsocentral setae ...  Sympycnus

Four pairs of dorsocentral setae ...  25

25. Face narrowed gradually downward; abdomen more or less cylindrical ... Teuchophorus

Face narrow in middle, extending downward; abdomen flattened dorsoventrally ...  Campsicnemus

26. Scape with hairs above ...  27

 Scape bare above ...  32

27. Occiput concave, and head adjacent to thorax; hind coxa with vertical row of fine setae; hind femur without subapical seta ...  Argyra

Occiput convex; hind coxa with one seta; hind femur with subapical seta ...  28

28. Antennal stylus long pubescent; with hairs approximately 1.5 times longer than basal diameter of stylus; notopleuron having strongly pronounced purple spot ...   ... Hercostomus(Poecilobothrus)

Antennal stylus bare, rarely pubescent; notopleuron usually without purple spot ...  29

29. Hind basitarsus with distinct bristle above ...  Dolichopus

 Hind basitarsus without bristles above ...  30

30. Proboscis long and narrow, at least 1.5 times longer than height of head; palpus long and narrow, adjacent to proboscis ...  Ortochile nigrocoerulea Latreille

Proboscis thick and short, not longer than height of head; palpus short, or if long, then comparatively broad ... 31

31. Several strong anterodorsal setae in apical half of the hind femur in addition to the true anterior subapical seta; face narrowed under antennae and somewhat widened towards clypeus; wing vein M1+2 usually with gentle curvation before the middle of distal part, then running towards R4+5 and reaching costa far before the tip of wing; stylus short and bare; postpedicel usually short and suboval ...  Tachytrechus

 Hind femur with one true anterior subapical seta; face regularly narrowed towards clypeus or parallel-sided; wing vein M1+2 either with curvation beyond the middle of distal part or M1+2 reaching costa near the tip of wing; stylus often pubescent; postpedicel usually subtriangular, asymmetric ...  Sybistroma and Hercostomus

32. Face divided into epistome and clypeus by transversal suture, and this division is distinctly pronounced along width of face (from eye to eye); posterior slope of mesonotum distinctly flattened between dorsocentral setae ... 33

Facial suture indistinct or hardly marked at eye margin ...  34

33. R4+5 and M1+2 convergent, at most subparallel at apex; thorax densely pollinose; male surstylus and cercus usually not deflexed dorsad ...  Medetera

 R4+5 and M1+2 parallel to apex; thorax shining green; male surstylus strongly deflexed dorsad, usually lying conformably with similarly deflexed, oblong-shaped cerci  ...  Thrypticus

34. Hind coxa on outer side without seta, or with vertical row of setiform hairs, or covered with dense hairs  ... 35

Hind coxa with at least one strong external seta  ...  36

35. Occiput concave, and head adjacent to thorax; hind coxa with vertical row of fine setae; antennal stylus subapical ...  Argyra (Leucostola)

Occiput convex; hind coxa on outer side covered with dense hairs; antennal stylus apical ... Rhaphium (part)

36. Hind femur without true subapical seta ...  37

Hind femur with true subapical seta ...  43

37. Antennal stylus dorsal ...  38

Stylus apical or strictly subapical ...  41

38. Mesonotum with distinct depression before scutellum; legs long and thin; fore tibia without apical setae; body mostly yellow; postocular setae uniseriate ...  Neurigona

Mesonotum without depression before scutellum; legs of ordinary length and width; fore tibia with apical setae; body mostly metallic green; sometimes abdomen yellow at base; lower postocular setae multiseriate ...  39

39. Face usually with parallel sides, and antennae positioned in middle of head; mid tibia with at least one ventral setae ...  Diaphorus

Antennae positioned above middle of face height ...  40

40. Antennal stylus distinctly dorsal; halters black ...  Melanostolus melancholicus(Loew)

Stylus apical or subapical; halters usually light, white or yellow ... Chrysotus

41. Postpedicel higher than long; postpedicel not triangular; stylus more or less apical ...  Chrysotus

Postpedicel at least as long as high; postpedicel triangular; stylus strictly apical ...  42

42. Hind basitarsus at most half as long as next segment; frons metallic green, pollinose; lower postocular setae uniseriate ...  Systenus

Hind basitarsus hardly shorter than next segment; frons metallic blue-violet, metallic shining, rarely white pollinose in middle, pollinose; lower postocular setae multiseriate ...  Rhaphium

43. Antennal stylus apical ...  44

Stylus dorsal ...  45

44. Postpedicel asymmetrical; mesonotum with distinct flattening before scutellum; R4+5 and M1+2 slightly to distinctly divergent; A2 absent; body without metallic shine or weakly shining ...  Achalcus

Postpedicel symmetrical; mesonotum without flattening before scutellum; R4+5 and M1+2 not divergent; A2 present; body metallic bronze green ...  Rhaphium (part)

45. Four pairs of dorsocentral setae; mesonotum with two large velvety black lateral spots; frons metallic brilliant ...  Lamprochromus bifasciatus(Macquart)

Six pairs of dorsocentral setae; mesonotum without velvety black lateral spots; frons pollinose, not brilliant ... Sympycnus


Acknowledgements

I am greatly indebted to Dr. Thomas Pape, Dr. Lars Hedstrm, Mr. Roy Danielsson and Mr. Bert Viklund for their kindness in giving the opportunity to study the collections of their Museums. I express sincere gratitude to Dr. Thomas Pape (the Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm) for critical review of the manuscript. The work could not be done without an Alphabetic list of scientific names of the family Dolichopodidae (Diptera) of the World compiled by Henk Meuffels (1999). The work was carried out in Stockholm mainly, in the laboratory of Thomas Pape with valuable support by his collaborators and was financially supported by the Swedish Institute (2001-2003).
Many drawings have been borrowed for this work from Stackelberg (1930-1971), Negrobov and Stackelberg (1971-1977) and Negrobov (1977-1979) with courteous permission of E. Schweizerbartsche Verlagsbuchhandlung und Gebrder Borntraeger Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Germany (ESV u. GBV). The author thanks also Dr Patrick Grootaert, Henk Meuffels and Marc Pollet for their kind permission to copy drawings from their papers on Sciapus, Hercostomus and Achalcus.
References
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